Radiation Damage in DNA

Structure/Function Relationships at Early Times

Publisher: Battelle Press

Written in English
Cover of: Radiation Damage in DNA |
Published: Pages: 451 Downloads: 642
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  • Science,
  • Radiation,
  • Dna (Deoxyribonucleic Acid),
  • Radiogenetics,
  • Science/Mathematics,
  • Life Sciences - Cytology,
  • DNA,
  • Congresses,
  • Effect of radiation on
  • Edition Notes

    ContributionsAlfred F. Fuciarelli (Editor), John D. Zimbrick (Editor)
    The Physical Object
    Number of Pages451
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL8392454M
    ISBN 100935470905
    ISBN 109780935470901

  This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks.   Units of measurement. rad: The rad represents a certain dose of energy absorbed by 1 gram of tissue. It is a unit of concentration. So if we could uniformly expose the entire body to radiation, the number of rads received would be the same whether we were speaking of a single cell, an organ (e.g., an ovary) or the entire body (just as the concentration of salt in sea water is the same whether.   Induction of DNA damage in cells harvested with ELV from 4 Gy irradiated mouse serum. To examine RIBE in mouse models, we obtained serum from . There is substantial evidence that clustered DNA damage is more mutagenic and cytotoxic than isolated damage. Radiation-induced clustered DNA damage has proven difficult to study because the spectrum of induced lesions is very complex, and lesions are randomly distributed throughout the genome.

UV radiation in sunlight can damage your DNA by messing up the base pairing. UV light will often make two T's that are next to each other stick together making something called a dimer. Our cells have ways to fix this problem but if there if too many TT pairs, your cells can't deal very well with it. DNA damages give rise to mutations and epimutations that, by a process of natural selection, can cause progression to cancer. First, we describe the distinguishing characteristics of DNA damage, mutation and epimutation. DNA damage is a change in the basic structure of DNA that is not itself replicated when the DNA is by: This book discusses the linear energy transfer and energy loss; DNA breaks and track structure; DNA radicals from water radicals; and radiation-induced strand breaks in isolated DNA. The radiation damage to DNA and its nearby environment; thiol radioprotectors and mechanism of action;.   Dna damage and repair 1. DNA Damage, Repair and Clinical significance By- Professor (Dr.) Namrata Chhabra Biochemistry for Medics- Lecture Notes 2. Introduction • DNA in the living cell is subjected to many chemical alterations.

Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophilic bacterium, one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known. It can survive cold, dehydration, vacuum, and acid, and is therefore known as a polyextremophile and has been listed as the world's toughest bacterium in The Guinness Book Of World : Deinococcaceae. Evidence for the roles of proteins and metal ions in the microheterogeneity of DNA damage is reviewed. Decondensation of chromatin in hypotonic buffers markedly sensitizes the DNA to radiation, while treatment of nuclei with hypertonic buffers strips the DNA of histones and other nuclear proteins and enhances the radiosensitivity of the DNA with respect to double-strand break (dsb) formation. Abstract. At doses at which mammalian cells are killed, ionizing radiation produces 3 × 10 3 — 3 × 10 4 altered moieties in the genomic DNA of the cell. Mechanisms whereby these alterations are produced are well described, i.e., from ’OH radicals, direct ionization of DNA (von Sonntag, ) and perhaps from peroxyl radicals arising from ’OH reactions with other cellular molecules Cited by: Anything that disturbs this flow of reactions can produce damage to the cell. The major effect of ionizing radiation on the cell is the disruption of the DNA strand. With the DNA structure damaged, the cell cannot reproduce in its normal fashion. Protein synthesis is affected, as are a number of processes necessary for proper cell function.

Radiation Damage in DNA Download PDF EPUB FB2

The 44 presentations and discussions address topics including models for energy deposition in DNA; early radical events following deposition of energy; effect of hydration on DNA radiation damage; mechanisms of DNA strand breakage; LET effects influencing DNA damage; use of radiation modifiers as mechanistic probes; and structure/function relationships at higher levels of organization.

This book discusses the linear energy transfer and energy loss; DNA breaks and track structure; DNA radicals from water radicals; and radiation-induced strand breaks in isolated DNA. The radiation damage to DNA and its nearby environment; thiol radioprotectors and mechanism of action; radiolysis of water and track reactions; and computer simulation of higher order structure of DNA Book Edition: 1.

DNA Damage Overview Radiation may damage any of the components of DNA: Ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) typically causes base damage, such as 8-oxo-G and pyrimidine dimers For therapeutic radiation, damage to DNA is caused by energy deposition along the track Damage from spur and blob Base damage: >/cell.

Radiation-Induced Damage in Chromosomal DNA Molecules: Deduction of Chromosomal DNA Organization from the Hydrodynamic Data Used to Measure DNA Double-Strand Breaks and from Stereo Electron Microscopic Observations Christopher S.

Understanding Radiation Biology: From DNA Damage to Cancer and Radiation Risk - CRC Press Book This book provides a qualitative and quantitative exploration of the action of radiation on living matter which leads to a complete and coherent interpretation of radiation biology. It takes readers from radiation-induced molecular damage in the nucleus of the cell and links this damage to cellular effects such as cell killing, chromosome aberrations and mutations before exploring organ damage, organism lethality and cancer : Kenneth Chadwick.

It takes readers from radiation-induced molecular damage in the nucleus of the cell and links this damage to cellular effects such as cell killing, chromosome aberrations and mutations before exploring organ damage, organism lethality and cancer induction.

Newer areas in this edition include the role of DNA Radiation Damage in DNA book in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, radiation DNA damage, Fanconi anemia cross-link repair, translesion DNA polymerases, BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway for HR and synthetic lethality, and.

Principles of Radiation Interactions Base changes: Bases can be damaged or destroyed or chemically modified by radiation. Hydroxyl radical and byproducts can add to bases. Pyrimidines (T, C) more sensitive than purines. The biological significance of base damage is less than that of strand damage.

Effects of radiation on DNA Page 8 of   II. Effects of Radiation on the DNA Synthetic Period III. Radiation Effects on DNA Precursor Metabolism and DNA Synthesis IV.

Possible Mechanisms Associated with Radiation-Induced Depression of DNA Synthesis V. Ionizing Radiation and RNA Metabolism in the Cultured Mammalian Cell References UV Damage at the Transcriptional Level I. Introduction Edition: 1. New mechanisms for radiation damage in ion-beam irradiated DNA.

Role of excited states in DNA damage: experimental and theoretical results. The role of trapped free radicals in strand break formation. Low-Energy Electron Pathways.

Introduction. Electron spin resonance experiments in ion-beam irradiated samples. Strand breaks in plasmid DNA via. The radiation could prevent the DNA from replicating correctly. The radiation could damage the DNA so badly that the cell dies.

This is called apoptosis. One dead cell is not a big problem. After all, millions of your cells die every day. But if too many cells die at once, the organism could also die.

What is DNA. Every one of your cells contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This important molecule is like your. Ultraviolet Radiation Damage in DNA R. Davies Division of Biochemistry, School of Biology and Biochemistry, Medical Biology Centre, Queen’s University, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, U.K.

Introduction The evolution of most forms of life has occurred in an environment exposed to. Ionizing radiation, the type of radiation released by radioactive materials, also contributes to DNA mutation.

Like UVB, ionizing radiation causes direct DNA damage that lead to mutations. Exposure ionizing radiation leads to double-stranded breaks in DNA, so both parts of the DNA molecule are broken at the same spot. There are hundreds of peer reviewed scientific studies that link RF Radiation to things like cancer, crib death, DNA Damage (especially in infants and fetuses), and male infertility.

If you are interested in facts given to you in an understandable and interesting way, this book is. Such effects of simulated microgravity were associated with increased heavy ion radiation-induced intracellular ROS generation.

29 In another study, increased apoptosis and DNA damage were found Cited by: In situ studies of the DNA-mediated self-assembly of nanoparticles have so far been limited to reciprocal space techniques. Liquid-cell electron microscopy could enable imaging such systems with high resolution in their native environment but to realize this potential, radiation damage to the oligonucleotide linkages needs to be understood and.

DNA double-strand breaks constitute the most dangerous type of DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). Accordingly, the resistance of cells to IR is modulated by three intimately related Cited by:   LONDON: Scientists have, for the first time, found how X-rays and radioactive particles cause cancer in humans by damaging DNA, a finding that may lead to more effective treatments for tumours caused by radiation.

Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the UK have been able to identify in human cancers two characteristic patterns of DNA damage caused by ionising radiation.

: Abstract High energy radiation damage to DNA results in direct ionization of DNA and its immediate surroundings. Holes are generated throughout the DNA and its first hydration layer in accord with the electron density and the electrons produced add randomly to the DNA bases.

Within a short time frame the holes move to the. These clustered DNA damage sites, which may be considered as a signature of ionising radiation, underlie the deleterious biological consequences of ionising radiation.

The concepts developed rely in part on the fact that ionising radiation creates significant levels of clustered DNA damage, including complex double-strand breaks (DSB), to kill tumour cells as clustered damage sites are difficult to repair.

MECHANISMS OF RADIATION DAMAGE Radiation damage starts at the cellular level. Radiation which is absorbed in a cell has the potential to impact a variety of critical targets in the cell, the most important of which is the DNA. Evidence indicates that damage to the DNA is what causes cell death, mutation, and Size: KB.

Energy Loss by Electrons in DNA / Simon M. Pimblott and Jay A. LaVerne --Radical Production in Biological Systems / John R. Johnson and Gamal Akabani --Reaction of Hydroxyl Radical with B- and Z-DNA / Veslav Michalik, L.

Tartier, Melanie Spotheim-Maurizot and Michel Charlier --Calculation of Range and Distributions of Damage to DNA by High- and.

When radiation damages DNA, in most cases, the body repairs the damage. If the damage is too severe and overwhelms normal cellular defenses, the cell may die. Exposure of the cellular DNA to ionising radiation (IR) inflicts various types of damage (Steel, ).

It is established that the creation of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) represents the principal lesion that, if not adequately repaired, can lead to cell death via the generation of lethal chromosomal aberrations or the direct induction of by: The realisation that DNA is the site of genetic infonnation in cells subsequently focussed attention on DNA as an important target in the lethal and mutagenic effects of ionising radiation.

Thus radiation effects upon DNA became an important area for fundamental scientific studies by radiation biologists, chemists and physicists. affected by the UV-B radiation of sunlight, which penetrates and damages their genome by inducing oxidative damage (pyrimidine hydrates) and cross-links (both DNA protein and DNA-DNA) that are.

DNA is subject to an array of different types of damage following exposure to ionizing radiation including base and sugar damage, crosslinks, as well as both single- and double- strand breaks (SSB and DSB, respectively). 28 J. Egozcue Role of telomere addition in the stabilisation of radiation-induced DNA breaks 30 L.

Sabatier Telomere instability and the formation and transmission of radiation induced DNA damage (TELORAD) 32 T. Jung Evolution of genetic damage in relation to cell cycle control: a molecular analysis of mechanisms relevant for low dose effects.

• The potency of radiation is in its concentration and the damage done to the genetic material of each cell Biological effect • The biological effect is expressed in cell killing, or cell transformation (carcinogenesis and mutations) • The primary target of radiation is DNA molecule, suffering breaks in chemical bonds.

Author information: (1)Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. DNA damage of exposed tumour tissue leading to cell death is one of the detrimental effects of ionising radiation that is exploited.

It covers a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from the historical perspective, instrumentation of accelerators in the nanosecond to femtosecond region, through the use of radiation chemical methods in the study of antioxidants and nanomaterials, radiation-induced DNA damage by ionizing radiation involving both direct and indirect effects, to.It has long been known that radiation damage to proteins is important, in Blake and Phillips showed that damage was proportional to the dose received by the crystal and that each 8keV photon was capable of disrupting 70 molecules and disordering 90 more.

At keV, of the 2% of X-rays that interact with.